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The Chicago Manual Of Style [PORTABLE]



The material on this page focuses primarily on one of the two CMOS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those working in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred by those working in the social sciences.




The Chicago Manual of Style



Though the two systems both convey all of the important information about each source, they differ not only in terms of the way they direct readers to these sources, but also in terms of their formatting (e.g., the position of dates in citation entries). For examples of how these citation styles work in research papers, consult our sample papers:


In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th edition). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.


The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMOS, TCM, or CMS, or sometimes as Chicago[1]) is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 17 editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing.[2] It is "one of the most widely used and respected style guides in the United States".[3] The guide specifically focuses on American English and deals with aspects of editorial practice, including grammar and usage, as well as document preparation and formatting. It is available in print as a hardcover book, and by subscription as a searchable website as The Chicago Manual of Style Online.[4] The online version provides some free resources, primarily aimed at teachers, students, and libraries.


Many publishers throughout the world adopt "Chicago" as their style. It is used in some social science publications, most North American historical journals,[5] and remains the basis for the Style Guide of the American Anthropological Association, the Style Sheet for the Organization of American Historians, and corporate style guides, including the Apple Style Guide.[6]


The Chicago Manual of Style includes chapters relevant to publishers of books and journals. It is used widely by academic and some trade publishers, as well as editors and authors who are required by those publishers to follow it. Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations also reflects Chicago style.


Chicago style offers writers a choice of several different formats. It allows the mixing of formats, provided that the result is clear and consistent. For instance, the 15th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style permits the use of both in-text citation systems and/or footnotes or endnotes, including use of "content notes"; it gives information about in-text citation by page number (such as MLA style) or by year of publication (like APA style); it even provides for variations in styles of footnotes and endnotes, depending on whether the paper includes a full bibliography at the end.[1]


Two types of citation styles are provided. In both cases, two parts are needed: first, notation in the text, which indicates that the information immediately preceding was from another source; and second, the full citation, which is placed at another location.


The full citation for the source is then included in a references section at the end of the material.[11] As publication dates are prominent in this style, the reference entry places the publication date following the author(s) name.[12]


Using notes and bibliography style,[a] the sourced text is indicated by a superscripted note number that corresponds to a full citation either at the bottom of the page (as a footnote) or at the end of a main body of text (as an endnote).[13] In both instances, the citation is also placed in a bibliography entry at the end of the material, listed in alphabetical order of the author's last name.[14] The two formats differ: notes use commas where bibliography entries use periods.[15]


What now is known as The Chicago Manual of Style was first published in 1906 under the title Manual of Style: Being a compilation of the typographical rules in force at the University of Chicago Press, to which are appended specimens of type in use. From its first 203-page edition,[22] the CMOS evolved into a comprehensive reference style guide of 1,146 pages in its 17th edition.[3] It was one of the first editorial style guides published in the United States, and it is largely responsible for research methodology standardization, notably citation style.[attribution needed]


The most significant revision to the manual was made for the 12th edition, published in 1969. Its first printing of 20,000 copies sold out before it was printed.[23] In 1982, with the publication of the 13th edition, it was officially retitled The Chicago Manual of Style, adopting the informal name already in widespread use.[23]


The 17th edition was published in September 2017. It offers new and expanded style guidelines in response to advancing technology and social change. It also includes new and revised content reflecting the latest publishing practices and electronic workflows and self-publishing. Citation recommendations, the glossary of problematic words and phrases, and the bibliography have all been updated and expanded. In the 17th edition, email lost its hyphen, internet became lowercase, the singular "they" and "their" are now acceptable in certain circumstances, a major new section on syntax has been added, and the long-standing recommendation to use "ibid" has changed due to electronic publishing.


The Chicago Manual of Style is an American English style and usage guide published continuously by the University of Chicago Press since 1906. Today, it is used widely in many academic disciplines and is considered the standard for US style in book publishing.


The Chicago Manual of Style has become a staple reference for writers and editors, in part because it was one of the first style guides to be published in book form, and the only one from an academic press in North America. (Other style guides are published by professional associations.) Eventually, the Manual became a canonical work synonymous with its home institution, akin to the Oxford English Dictionary.


For detailed information about Chicago-style citations and references, visit the CMOS website and Citation Quick Guide. In general, Chicago-style citations use either an author-date format or numbered notes and a bibliography.


Many English style and usage guides exist, and many organizations have their own in-house guides. Some guides are specific to particular fields like law, whereas others have more general applications.


Chicago style is comprehensive, and can address most questions relevant to writing, editing, and publishing in any discipline. Intended originally as a guide for publishers of academic books and journals, it is especially popular in the humanities and social sciences. Chicago style is also used widely by students and by publishers of novels and trade books.


Oxford University Press and other presses such as Cambridge University Press are older than any North American university press. Oxford traces the founding of its press to the 16th century (as does Cambridge). However, both the University of Chicago and the University of Oxford made their style guides available to the public before competitors early in the 20th century, which helped ensure their influence since then.


The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1) Notes and Bibliography and 2) Author-Date.


*According to the 17th edition of the manual, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are generally cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. Of course, if the writer or professor prefers a full bibliographic reference, one can be created.


According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, personal communications, such as letters, e-mails, text messages, and phone calls are usually referenced in the footnotes and endnotes or explained in the text of the paper. They are rarely listed in the Chicago style bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner.


Chicago is not alone in issuing cautious recommendations while waiting for conclusive evidence that the generic singular they is not a passing fad but a linguistic fixture that will stand the test of time. Other style guides have begun to begun to tentatively recommend use of the gender-neutral pronoun including the Associated Press Stylebook 2017 which allows for limited use of they as a singular pronoun when rewording is too awkward. In these cautious endorsements of the singular they, major style guides continue to betray their linguistically conservative character, refraining from the release of firm guidelines until the staying power of a language feature has been confirmed. Time will tell whether they as a singular pronoun achieves widespread acceptance in formal writing, but this edition of the CMOS cannot take much credit for encouraging this process.


The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, the humanities style (notes and bibliography) and the author-date system. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.


The humanities style is preferred by many in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system. 041b061a72


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