Pengantar Logika by B. Arief Sidharta PDF: A Review of the Book
Pengantar Logika by B. Arief Sidharta is a book that introduces the basic concepts and principles of logic, a branch of philosophy that studies the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation. The book covers topics such as the nature and types of logic, the structure and analysis of arguments, the methods of deduction and induction, the fallacies and paradoxes of logic, and the applications of logic in various fields of knowledge.
The book is written in a clear and concise style, with examples and exercises to help readers understand and practice the skills of logical thinking. The book also provides references to other sources of information on logic, such as books, articles, websites, and videos. The book is suitable for students, teachers, researchers, and anyone who wants to learn more about logic and its relevance in everyday life.
In this article, we will review some of the main points and features of Pengantar Logika by B. Arief Sidharta PDF, and provide a link to download the book for free.
What is Logic?
Logic is the science of correct reasoning. It is a set of rules and methods that help us to distinguish between valid and invalid arguments, and to evaluate the strength and soundness of our claims and beliefs. Logic also helps us to avoid errors and fallacies in our thinking, and to communicate our ideas more clearly and persuasively.
Logic can be divided into two main branches: formal logic and informal logic. Formal logic deals with the abstract structure and form of arguments, regardless of their content or context. It uses symbols and systems to represent and manipulate logical expressions, such as propositions, predicates, variables, quantifiers, operators, etc. Formal logic includes subfields such as propositional logic, predicate logic, modal logic, etc.
Informal logic deals with the content and context of arguments, taking into account their meaning, relevance, purpose, audience, etc. It uses natural language and common sense to analyze and critique arguments, such as their premises, conclusions, assumptions, implications, evidence, etc. Informal logic includes subfields such as argumentation theory, critical thinking, rhetoric, etc.
What are Arguments?
An argument is a set of statements that are intended to support or prove a conclusion. An argument consists of two main parts: premises and conclusion. Premises are statements that provide reasons or evidence for the conclusion. Conclusion is the statement that follows from or is supported by the premises.
All humans are mortal.
Socrates is a human.
Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
This is an argument with two premises (the first two statements) and one conclusion (the last statement).
Arguments can be classified into two types: deductive and inductive. Deductive arguments are arguments that claim that their conclusion follows necessarily from their premises. If the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true as well. Deductive arguments aim to provide certainty or validity for their conclusion.
All cats are mammals.
All mammals have fur.
Therefore, all cats have fur.
This is a deductive argument with a valid structure. If the premises are true (which they are), then the conclusion must be true as well.
Inductive arguments are arguments that claim that their conclusion follows probably or likely from their premises. If the premises are true (or probable), then the conclusion is also true (or probable) as well. Inductive arguments aim to provide probability or plausibility for their conclusion.
Most birds can fly.
Penguins are birds.
Therefore, penguins can fly.
This is an inductive argument with an invalid structure. Even if the premises are true (which they are), the conclusion does not follow necessarily or probably from them.
What are Fallacies?
Fallacies are errors or flaws in reasoning that make an argument invalid or weak. Fallacies can be 29c81ba772